[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 23, Issue 1 (Bimonthly 2019) ::
Feyz 2019, 23(1): 27-35 Back to browse issues page
The effect of eight weeks of aerobic training with chlorella supplementation on brain antioxidant levels in diabetic male rats
Negin Jahedi , Roghayeh Pouzesh Jadidi * , Mohammadreza Nasir-Zadeh
Department of Physical Education, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pasdaran Highway, Tabriz, I. R. Iran. , Poozesh@iaut.ac.ir
Abstract:   (619 Views)
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week aerobic training  program and chlorella supplementation on brain antioxidants of diabetic male rats. 
Materials and Methods: Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10): aerobic training (AT), chlorella, training + chlorella, diabetic control and healthy control groups. Training was performed on a treadmill for eight weeks (5 sessions per week). Chlorella groups consumed chlorella powder solution once a day for eight weeks, each time with a dose of 5% of body weight. The rats of all the groups were anesthetized and sacrificed 48 hours following the last training session and after extraction of brain tissue, the levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes were measured.
Results: The activity of both enzymes (CAT and SOD) in all diabetic rats was higher than that in the healthy control group and of all three types of intervention led to a decrease in the amount of activity of these enzymes induced by diabetes. Also, the cumulative effect of supplementation and exercise was better than each other alone (P<0.05).
Conclusions: Chlorella consumption and exercise in the brain of diabetic rats, contrary to expectation, were associated with an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes, which appears to be due to the brain's efforts to relieve oxidative stress in the brain.
Keywords: Aerobic Training, Chlorella, Diabetes, Anti-Oxidants, Oxidative stress
Full-Text [PDF 323 kb]   (141 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: medicine, paraclinic
Received: 2018/04/11 | Accepted: 2018/12/11 | Published: 2019/04/17
1. Hemmat Abadi M, Larijani B. A Review of the Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy in Diabetes. Iran J Diabet Lipid 2009; 9(1): 1-6.
2. Lee HS, Kim MK. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on glucose metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet. J Med Food 2009; 12(5): 1029-37.
3. Bgeginski R, Ribeiro PAB, Mottola MF, Ramos JGL. Effects of weekly supervised exercise or physical activity counseling on fasting blood glucose in women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mel‌litus: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized trials. J Diabetes 2017; 9(11): 1023-32.
4. Aksu I, Topcu A, Camsari UM, Acikgoz O. Effect of acute and chronic exercise on oxidant–anti‌oxidant equilibrium in rat hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Neurosci letters 2009; 452(3): 281-5.
5. Ceretta LB, Réus GZ, Abelaira HM, Ribeiro KF, Zappellini G, Felisbino FF, et al. Increased oxidative stress and imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in the brains of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Exper Diabet Res 2012; 2012.
6. Hidaka S, Okamoto Y, Arita M. A hot water extract of Chlorella pyrenoidosa reduces body weight and serum lipids in ovariectomized rats. Phytother Res 2004; 18(2): 164-8.
7. Senthilkumar T, Sangeetha N, Ashokkumar N. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and reno‌pro‌tective effects of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in dia‌betic rats exposed to cadmium. Toxicol Mech Method 2012; 22(8): 617-24.
8. Itakura H, Kobayashi M, Nakamura S. Chlorella ingestion suppresses resistin gene expression in peripheral blood cells of borderline diabetics. Clinic Nutr Espen 2015 ; 10(3): e95-e101.
9. Aliahmat NS, Noor MR, Yusof WJ, Makpol S, Ngah WZ, Yusof YA. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2012; 67(12): 1447-54.
10. Nakagawa H, Kasahara S, Tsujimura A, Akira K. Changes of body composition during starvation in chlorella-extract fed ayu [Plecoglossus altivelis]. Bullet Japan Soc Sci Fish 1984.
11. Aizzat O, Yap SW, Sopiah H, Madiha MM, Hazreen M, Shailah A, et al. Modulation of oxidative stress by Chlorella vulgaris in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Adv Med Sci 2010; 55(2): 281-2.
12. Lee HS, Park HJ, Kim MK. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet. Nutr Res Practice 2008; 2(4): 204-10.
13. Shibata S, Hayakawa K, Egashira Y, Sanada H. Hypocholesterolemic mechanism of Chlorella: Chlorella and its indigestible fraction enhance hepatic cholesterol catabolism through up-regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in rats. Bioscience, Biotechl Biochem 2007; 71(4): 916-25.
14. Ghani I, Mohammadi M, Jafari M, Khoshbatan A, Asgari A. Evaluation of oxidative stress indices in rat brain after exposure to paraoxon. Kowsar Med J 2008; 13(1): 1-8.
15. Panahi Y, Ghamarchehreh ME, Beiraghdar F, Zare R, Jalalian H, Sahebkar A. Investigation of the effects of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized clinical trial. Hepato-Gastro 2012; 59(119): 2099.
16. Lee HS, Kim MK. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on glucose metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet. J Med Food 2009; 12(5): 1029-37.
17. Chen HT, Chung YC, Chen YJ, Ho SY, Wu HJ. Effects of Different Types of Exercise on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, and IGF‐1 in the Elderly with Sarcopenic Obesity. J Am Geriatr Soc 2017; 65(4): 827-32.
18. Cherng, JY, Shih MF. Preventing dyslipidemia by Chlorella pyrenoidosa in rats and hamsters after chronic high fat diet treatment. Life Sci 2005; 76(26): 3001-13.
19. Noguchi N, Yanagita T, Rahman, SM, Ando Y. Chlorella Protein Hydrolysate Attenuates Glucose Metabolic Disorder and Fatty Liver in High-fat Diet-induced Obese. Mice J Oleo Sci 2016; 65(7): 613-20.
20. Queiroz ML, da Rocha MC, Torello CO, de Souza Queiroz J, Bincoletto C, Morgano MA, Calg‌arotto AK. Chlorella vulgaris restores bone mar‌row cellularity and cytokine production in lead-exposed mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2011; 49(11): 2934-41.
21. Salo DC, Lin SW, Pacifici RE, Davies KJ. Superoxide dismutase is preferentially degraded by a proteolytic system from red blood cells following oxidative modification by hydrogen peroxide. Free Radic Biol Med 1988; 5(5-6): 335-9.
22. Genet S, Kale RK, Baquer NZ. Alterations in antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in experimental diabetic rat tissues: effect of vanadate and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). Molecul Cellul Biochem 2002; 236(1-2): 7-12.
23. De Angelis K, Cestari I, Barp J, Dall'Ago P, Fernandes T, Homem de Bittencourt P, Irigoyen M. Oxidative stress in the latissimus dorsi muscle of diabetic rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 2000; 33(11): 1363-8.
24. de Sousa CV, Sales MM, Rosa TS, Lewis JE, de Andrade RV, Simões HG. The antioxidant effect of exercise: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 2017; 47(2): 277-93 .
25. Radak Z, Chung HY, Goto S .Systemic adap‌ta‌tion to oxidative challenge induced by regular exe‌r‌cise Free Rad Biol Med 2008; 44(2): 153-9.
26. Shibata S, Natori Y, Nishihara T, Tomisaka K, Matsumoto K, Sansawa H, Nguyen VC. Antioxidant and anti-cataract effects of Chlorella on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2003; 49(5): 334-9.
27. Baynes JW. Role of oxidative stress in develo‌pment of complications in diabetes. Diabet 1991; 40(4): 405-12.
28. Kakkar R, Mantha SV, Kalra J, Prasad K. Time course study of oxidative stress in aorta and heart of diabetic rat. Clin Sci (Lond) 1996; 91(4): 441-8.
29. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 1974; 47(3): 469-74.
30. Michel T, Thome J, Martin D, Nara K, Zwerina S, Tatschner T, Koutsilieri E. Cu, Zn-and Mn-superoxide dismutase levels in brains of patients with schizophrenic psychosis. J Neural Trans 2004; 111(9): 1191-201.
31. Ceretta LB, Réus GZ, Abelaira HM, Ribeiro KF, Zappellini G, Felisbino FF, et al. Increased oxidative stress and imbalance in antioxidant enzymes in the brains of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Experiment Diabet Res 2012.
32. Wuorinen EC, Page R, Wuorinen SH. Acute and chronic varied exercise intensity effects on total antioxidant capacity and protein carbonylation. FASEB Jm 2017; 31(1 Supplement): 826-39.
33. Zhuang X, Zhang D, Qin W, Deng J, Shan H, Tao L, et al. A comparison on the preparation of hot water extracts from Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CPEs) and radical scavenging and macrophage activation effects of CPEs. Food Funct 2014; 5(12(: 3252-60.
34. Kitada K, Machmudah S, Sasaki M, Goto M, Nakashima Y, Kumamoto S, et al. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of nutraceutical compounds from Chlorella vulgaris extracted in hydrothermal condition. Separation Sci Technol 2009; 44(5): 1228-39.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Jahedi N, Pouzesh Jadidi R, Nasir-Zadeh M. The effect of eight weeks of aerobic training with chlorella supplementation on brain antioxidant levels in diabetic male rats. Feyz. 2019; 23 (1) :27-35
URL: http://feyz.kaums.ac.ir/article-1-3579-en.html

Volume 23, Issue 1 (Bimonthly 2019) Back to browse issues page
مجله علمی پژوهشی فیض ::: دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان KAUMS Journal ( FEYZ )
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 3977