1. Wu W, Wang X, Xiang Q, Meng X, Peng Y, Du N, et al. Astaxanthin alleviates brain aging in rats by attenuating oxidative stress and increasing BDNF levels. Food Funct 2014; 5(1): 158-66.
2. Park DC, Yeo SG. Aging. Korean J Audiol 2013; 17(2): 39-44.
3. Paillard T. Preventive effects of regular physical exercise against cognitive decline and the risk of dementia with age advancement. Sports Med Open 2015; 1(1): 20.
4. Chung HY, Sung B, Jung KJ, Zou Y, Yu BP. The molecular infammatory process in aging. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006; 8(3-4): 572–81.
5. Esiri MM. Ageing and the brain. J Pathol 2007; 211(2): 181‐7.
6. Mokhtari-Zaer A, Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan S, Vafaei AA, Miladi-Gorji H, Akhavan MM, Bandegi AR, et al. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Behav Brain Res 2014; 271: 160-70.
7. Akhtar RS, Ness JM, Roth KA. Bcl-2 family regulation of neuronal development and neurodegeneration. Biochim Biophys Acta 2004; 1644(2-3): 189-203.
8. Chung JW, Seo JH, Baek SB, Kim CJ, Kim TW. Treadmill exercise inhibits hippocampal apoptosis through enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. J Exerc Rehabil 2014; 10(4): 218-24.
9. Mattson MP, Magnus T. Ageing and neuronal vulnerability. Nature Reviews Neurosci 2006; 7: 278-94.
10. Cotman CW, Berchtold NC, Christie LA. Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends Neurosci 2007; 30(9): 464-72.
11. Macfarlane DJ, Taylor LH, Cuddihy TF. Very short intermittent vs continuous bouts of activity in sedentary adults. Prev Med 2006; 43(4): 332–6.
12. Lucas SJ, Cotter JD, Brassard P, Bailey DM. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2015; 35(6): 902-11.
13. Um HS, Kang EB, Leem YH, Cho IH, Yang CH, Chae KR, et al. Exercise training acts as a therapeutic strategy for reduction of the pathogenic phenotypes for Alzheimer's disease in an NSE/APPsw-transgenic model. Prev Med 2008; 22(4): 529-39.
14. Ding Q, Vaynman S, Souda P, Whitelegge JP, Gomez-Pinilla F. Exercise affects energy metabolism and neural plasticity-related proteins in the hippocampus as revealed by proteomic analysis. Eur J Neurosci 2006; 24(5): 1265-76.
15. Hoshino D, Yoshida Y, Kitaoka Y, Hatta H, Bonen A. High-intensity interval training increases intrinsic rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in rat red and white skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2013; 38(3): 326-33.
16. Songstad NT, Kaspersen KH, Hafstad AD, Basnet P, Ytrehus K, Acharya G. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses. PLoS One 2015; 10(11): e0143095.
17. Commenges D, Scotet V, Renaud S, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Barberger-Gateau P, Dartigues JF. Intake of flavonoids and risk of dementia. Eur J Epidemiol 2000; 16(4): 357-63.
18. Keleshian VL, Modi HR, Rapoport SI, Rao JS. Retracted: Aging is associated with altered inflamematory, arachidonic acid cascade, and synaptic markers, influenced by epigenetic modifications, in the human frontal cortex. J Neurochem 2013; 125 (1): 63-73.
19. Shacka JJ, Roth KA. Bcl-2 family and the central nervous system: from rheostat to real complex. Cell Death Differ 2006; 13(8): 1299-304.
20. Zhang C, Bazan NG. Lipid-mediated cell signaling protects against injury and neurodegeneration. J Nutr 2010; 140(4): 858-63.
21. Fang G, Zhao J, Li P, Li L, Yu T, Yang X, et al. Long-term treadmill exercise inhibits neuronal cell apoptosis and reduces tau phosphorylation in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of aged rats. Sci Bulletin 2017; 6 (11): 755–7.
22. Kirk-Sanchez NJ, McGough EL. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives. Clin Interv Aging 2014; 9: 51-62.
23. Rezaei R, Nourshahi M, Khodagholi F, Haghparast A, Nasoohi S, Bigdeli M, et al. Differential impact of treadmill training on stroke-induced neurological disorders. Brain Inj 2017; 31(13-14): 1910-7.
24. Cho JY, Um HS, Kang EB, Cho IH, Kim CH, Cho JS, et al. The combination of exercise training and alpha-lipoic acid treatment has therapeutic effects on the pathogenic phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease in NSE/APPsw-transgenic mice. Int J Mol Med 2010; 25(3): 337-46.
25. Peng Y, Jiang B, Wu H, Dai R, Tan L. Effects of genistein on neuronal apoptosis, and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Neural Regen Res 2012; 7(36): 2874–81.