[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 20, Issue 2 (Bimonthly 2016) ::
Feyz 2016, 20(2): 108-117 Back to browse issues page
Impact of a 12 week resistance and concurrent training on bone mechanical strength and mineral density of osteoporotic male Wistar rats
Farzad Nazem, Abbas Salehikia *, Seyyed Mohammad Marandi, Ahmad Sahdadi
Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, I. R. Iran. , salehikia@ped.usb.ac.ir
Abstract:   (2116 Views)

Background: This study evaluated the efficacy of concurrent training compared to resistance training on femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical strength of osteoporotic male rats.

Materials and Methods: Eight out of 40 male Wistar rats were separated as healthy subjects. Then osteoporosis was induced in the remaining rats by the injection of ethanol (20%, i.p) for 3 weeks. Osteoporotic rats divided into 4 groups: Baseline, Resistance training, Concurrent training and Control. The resistance training protocol consisted of 8 series of climbs on a 110-cm vertical ladder angled at 80º with weights tied to the animal tail. The overload for first and eighth series was set at 50% and 100% of the total body mass of the animal, respectively. Concurrent group completed a combination of both resistance and endurance treadmill trainings (60 min/day, speed: 12 m/min). The left excised femur of the animals were scanned for BMD measurement and examined by three point bending test to obtain the maximum force and stiffness.

Result: Two Resistance training and Concurrent training groups had significantly increased maximum force, stiffness and BMD compared to Control group (P=0.019). Compared to resistance group, the Concurrent group showed a positive effect on bone mechanical strength (P=0.039) with no significance difference in BMD (P=0.890).

Conclusion: The results of this study shows that the combination of resistance and endurance exercise may have a synergistic effect on increasing the mechanical strength of osteoporotic femoral bone in male rats compared to resistance training alone.

Keywords: Bone density, Mechanical properties, Osteoporosis, Resistance training, Concurrent training, Animal model
Full-Text [PDF 236 kb]   (729 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: medicine, paraclinic
Received: 2016/06/19 | Accepted: 2016/06/19 | Published: 2016/06/19
References
1. Hamidi Z, Majdzadeh R, Soltani A, Larijani MB. Casual decomposition of risk factors in osteoporosis burden. J Med Council IRI 2007; 24(4): 381-92. [in Persian]
2. Iwamoto J. Effects of Jumping Exercise and Nutritional Management on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in a Young Man. J Osteopor Phys Act 2013; 1(2): 1-4.
3. Drummond LR, Del Carlo RJ, Melo SFS, Junior MAC, Da Silva KA, Rodrigues AC, et al. Enhanced femoral neck strength in response to weightlifting exercise training in maturing male rats. Int Sport Med J 2013; 14(3): 155-67.
4. Wolf AD, Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 2003; 81(9): 646-56.
5. Moreira LD, Oliveira ML, Lirani-Galvão AP, Marin-Mio RV, Santos RN, Lazaretti-Castro M. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2014; 58(5): 514-22.
6. Renno AC, Silveira Gomes AR, Nascimento RB, Salvini T, Parizoto N. Effects of a progressive loading exercise program on the bone and skeletal muscle properties of female osteopenic rats. Exp Gerontol 2007; 42(6): 517–22.
7. Starnes JW, Neidre DB, Nyman JS, Roy A, Nelson MJ, Gutierrez G, et al. Synergistic effect of exercise and statins on femoral strength in rats. Exp Gerontol 2013; 48(8): 751–5.
8. Dabidi Roshan V, Hemmati Safarshahi Y, Nooredinini HG. Interactive Effect of the 8-week Endurance Exercise and Turmeric Extract on the Regional Bone Mineral Density of Femur bone. Horizon Med Sci 2012; 18(2): 27-36. [in Persian]
9. Saiem Aldahr M. Bone Mineral Status Response to Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Training in Postmenopausal Women. World Appl Sci J 2012; 16(6): 806-13.
10. Morseth B, Emaus N, Jorgensen L. Physical activity and bone: The importance of the various mechanical stimuli for bone mineral density. Norsk Epidemiologi 2011; 20(2): 173-8.
11. Beck TJ, Kohlmeier LA, Petit MA, Wu G, Leboff MS, Cauley JA, et al. Confounders in the Association between Exercise and Femur Bone in Postmenopausal Women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43(1): 80-9.
12. De Souza RR, Do Carmo Sitta M, Sobrinho JMS, Filho WJ. Long Term Running Exercise vs Long Term Strength Exercise on Femoral Bone Mass Assessed in a Rat Model. J Exerc Physiol 2013; 16 (2): 92-8.
13. Notomi T, Okimoto N, Okazaki Y, Tanaka Y, Nakamura T, Suzuki M. Effects of Tower Climbing Exercise on Bone Mass, Strength, and Turnover in Growing Rats. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(1): 166-74.
14. Notomi T, Okazaki Y, Okimoto N, Tanaka Y, Nakamura T, Suzuki M. Effects of Tower Climbing Exercise on Bone Mass, Strength, and Turnover in orchidectomized Growing Rats. J Appl Physiol 2002; 93(3): 1152–8.
15. Aguiar AF, Agati LB, Müller SS, Pereira OC, Dal-Pai-Silva M. Effect of physical training on the mechanical resistance of rat femur proximal thirds. Acta Ortop Bras 2010; 18(5): 245-9.
16. Callaci JJ, Juknelis D, Patwardhan A, Sartori M, Frost N, Wezeman FH. The Effects of Binge Alcohol Exposure on Bone Resorption and Biomechanical and Structural Properties are offset by Concurrent Bisphosphonate Treatment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2004; 28(1): 182–91.
17. El-Shenawy SMA, Yassin NAZ, Badary OA, EL-Moneem MA, AL-Shafeiy HM. Study of the effect of Allium porrum on osteoporosis induced in rats. Der Pharmacia Lettre 2013; 5(1): 188-98.
18. Joo YI, Sone T, Fukunaga M, Lim SG, Onodera S. Effects of endurance exercise on three-dimensional trabecular bone microarchitecture in young growing rats. Bone 2003; 33(4): 485–93.
19. Cassilhas RC, Reis IT, Venâncio D, Fernandes J, Tufik S, Mello MT. Animal model for progressive resistance exercise: a detailed description of model and its implications for basic research in exercise. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física 2013; 19(1): 178-84.
20. De Souza EO, Tricoli V, Bueno Junior C, Pereira MG, Brum PC, Oliveira EM, et al. The acute effects of strength, endurance and concurrent exercises on the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 and AMPK signaling pathway responses in rat skeletal muscle. Braz J Med Biol Res 2013; 46(4): 343-7.
21. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y. Effect of treadmill exercise on bone mass in female rats. Exp Anim 2005; 54(1): 1-6.
22. Hosseni M, AghaAlinejad H, Peeri M, Hajsadeghi Sh. Effect of Endurance, Resistance and Concurrent Training on the Heart Structure of the Female University Students. Olympic 2008; 16(4): 29-38. [in Persian]
23. Comelekoglu U, Bagis S, Yalin S, Ogenler O, Yildiz A, Sahin NO, et al. Biomechanical evaluation in osteoporosis: ovariectomized rat model. Clin Rheumatol 2007; 26(3): 380-4.
24. Diaz-Curiel M. Effects of Exercise on Osteoporosis. J Osteopor Phys Act 2013; 1(1): 4-6.
25. Turner CH, Robling AG. Designing exercise regimens to increase bone strength. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2003; 31(1): 45-50.
26. Honda A, Sogo N, Nagasawa S, Shimizu T, Umemura Y. High-impact exercise strengthens bone in osteopenic ovariectomized rats with the same outcome as Sham rats. J Appl Physiol 2003; 95(3): 1032-7.
27. Robling AG, Hinant FM, Burr DB, Turner CH. Shorter, more frequent mechanical loading sessions enhance bone mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34(2): 196-202.
28. Turner CH, Robling AG. Exercise as an anabolic stimulus for bone. Curr Pharm Design 2004; 10(21): 2629-41.
29. Going SB, Laudermilk M. Osteoporosis and Strength Training. Am J Lifestyle Med 2009; 3(4): 310-19.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA


XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Nazem F, Salehikia A, Marandi S M, Sahdadi A. Impact of a 12 week resistance and concurrent training on bone mechanical strength and mineral density of osteoporotic male Wistar rats. Feyz. 2016; 20 (2) :108-117
URL: http://feyz.kaums.ac.ir/article-1-3040-en.html


Volume 20, Issue 2 (Bimonthly 2016) Back to browse issues page
مجله علمی پژوهشی فیض ::: دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان KAUMS Journal ( FEYZ )
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 3925