[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Indexing Sources::
Guide for Authors::
Online Submission::
Articles archive::
For Reviewers::
Contact us::
Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases
Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
:: Volume 22, Issue 5 (Bimonthly 2018) ::
Feyz 2018, 22(5): 458-468 Back to browse issues page
Motor coordination and structural changes of hippocampus tissue in response to eight weeks of aerobic training and Ritalin consumption in hyperactive rats
Saeedeh Shadmehri , Mozhgan Ahmadi , Asieh Abbassi-Daloii , Seyed Javad Ziaolhagh , Behrooz Yahyaei
Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, I. R. Iran. , saeedehsh61@gmail.com
Abstract:   (3014 Views)
Background: Changes in the structure of the hippocampus play a role in the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the motor coordination and structural changes of the hippocampus tissue in response to an 8-week aerobic training program and Ritalin consumption in hyperactive rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 33 Wistar rats weighing 180-220g were randomly divided into 5 groups: 1) healthy control, 2) hyperactivity, 3) hyperactivity-aerobic training, 4) hyperactivity- Ritalin, and 5) hyperactivity-aerobic training-Ritalin and respond positively to the open field test. To induce ADHD in the rats, they were injected 10 mg/kg of L-NAME for 8 weeks (6 days per week) based on the weight of the rats. The drug group received 1 mg oral Ritalin per kg weight of rats daily for 8 weeks. The rats performed aerobic training 30 minutes a day and 7 days a week for 8 weeks.
Results: The results showed that aerobic training and Ritalin consumption had no significant effect on weight (P=0.877) but had a significant effect on motor coordination (P=0.001) in hyperactive rats. In rats with the hyperactivity disorder, there was a slight change in the tissue and cellular structure, necrosis and tissue hyperemia as well as piconosis of the hippocampus tissue. Treadmill training along with Ritalin consumption reduced the tissue and cellular damage, necrosis, and also piconosis of the hippocampus tissue.
Conclusion: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can cause the structural damage of the hippocampus tissue and treadmill exercises with Ritalin consumption may improve the damage to the hippocampal structure.
Keywords: Hyperactive, Aerobic training, Ritalin, Hippocampus, Motor coordination, Wistar rats
Full-Text [PDF 442 kb]   (1419 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2018/03/18 | Revised: 2018/12/9 | Accepted: 2018/09/9 | Published: 2018/11/28
1. Faraone SV, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Biederman J, Buitelaar JK, Ramos-Quiroga JA, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2015; 1: 15020-7.
2. De Boo GM, Prins PJ. Social incompetence in children with ADHD: Possible moderators and mediators in social- skills training. Clin Psychol Rev 2007; 27(1): 78-97.
3. Gapin JI, Etnier JL. Parental perceptions of the effects of exercise on behavior in children and adolescents with ADHD. J Sport Health Sci 2014; 3(4): 320-5.
4. Fliers E, Vermeulen S, Rijsdijk F, Altink M, Buschgens C, Rommelse N, et al. ADHD and Poor Motor Performance from a Family Genetic Perspective. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009; 48(1): 25-34.
5. Pataki CS, Mitchell WG. Motor Skills Disorder Developmental Coordination Disorder. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock’s Comperhensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins 2009: 3501-8.
6. Cortese S. The neurobiology and genetics of attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): what every clinician should know. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2012; 16(5): 422–33.
7. Kieling C, Goncalves RR, Tan Nock R, Castel lanos FX. Neurobiology of attention in deficit. hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2008; 17(2): 285-307.
8. Verret C, Guay MC, Berthiaume C, Gardiner P, Béliveau L. A physical activity program improves behavior and cognitive functions in children with ADHD: an exploratory study. J Atten Disord 2012; 16(1): 71-80.
9. Chaddock L, Erickson KI, Prakash RS, Kim JS, Voss MW, Vanpatter M, et al. A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume, and memory performance in preadolescent children. Brain Res 2010; 1358: 172–83.
10. Erickson KI, Prakash RS, Voss MW, Chaddock L, Hu L, Morris KS, et al. Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans. Hippocampus 2009; 19(10): 1030–9.
11. Shum SB, Pang MY. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have impaired balance function: involvement of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems. J Pediatr 2009; 155(2): 245-9.
12. Halperin JM, Marks DJ, Bedard AC, Chacko A, Curchack JT, Yoon CA, et al. Training Executive, Attention, and Motor Skills: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Preschool Children with ADHD. J Atten Disord 2013; 17(8): 711-21.
13. Kosari S, Hemayat-Talab R, Arab-Ameri E, Keyhani F. The effect of physical exercise on the development of gross motor skills in children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. Zahedan J Res Med Sci (ZJRMS) 2013; 15(2): 74-78.
14. Bakhshipour E, Rahnama N, Sourtiji H, Eskandari Z, Izadi Najafabadi S. Comparing the effects of an aerobic exercise program and group-based play therapy on the balance of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). J Res Rehabil Sci 2013; 9(2): 161-70.
15. Harvey WJ, Reid G, Bloom GA, Staples K, Grizenko N, Mbekou V, et al. Physical activity experiences of boys with and without ADHD. Adapt Phys Activ Q 2009; 26(2): 131-50.
16. Pan CY, Tsai CL, Chu CH. Fundamental Movement Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 2009; 39(12): 1694-705.
17. Kollins SH, MacDonald EK, Rush CR. Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2001; 68: 611–27.
18. Barbaresi W, Katusic S, Colligan R, Oankratz V, Weber K, Mrazek D, et al. How common is attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder? Incidence in a population-based cohortin Rochester Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156(3): 217-24.
19. DuPaul GJ, Barkley RA. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guildford Press; 1998.
20. Kosters M, Weinmann S, Becker T. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD. J European Psychiatry 2010; 25(1): 889-896.
21. Meszaros A, Czobor P, Komlosi, S, Komlosi S, Simon V, Bitter I. Pharacotherapy of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analysis. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2009; 12: 1137-14.
22. Salci Y, Kentel BB, Heycan C, Akin S, Korkusuz F. Comparison of landing maneuvers between male and female college Volleyball players. Clin Biomech 2004; 19(6): 622-8.
23. Luong TN, Carlisle HJ, Southwell A, Patterson PH. Assessment of Motor Balance and Coordination in Mice using the Balance Beam. J Vis Exp 2011; 49.1-3
24. Manjanatha MG, Shelton, SD, Dobrovolsky VN, Shaddock JG, McGarrity LG, Doerge DR, et al. Pharmacokinetics, dose-range, and mutagenicity studies of methylphenidate hydrochloride in B6C3F1 mice. Environ Mol Mutagen 2008; 49(8): 585-93.
25. Altoama K, Mallem MY, Thorin C, Betti E, Desfontis JC. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2016; 791: 465-72.
26. Somkuwar SS, Kantak KM, Bardo MT, Dwoskin LP. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2016; 141: 66-77.
27. Kim H, Heo HI, Kim DH, Ko IG, Lee SS, Kim SE, et al. Treadmill exercise and methylphenidate ameliorate symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder through enhancing dopamine synthesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett 2011; 504(1): 35-9.
28. Golmohammadi R, Pejhan A, Azhdari- Zarmehri H, Mohammad-Zadeh M. The role of ethanol on the anticonvulsant effect of valproic acid and cortical microvascular changes after epileptogenesis in mice. Neurol Sci 2013; 34(7): 1125-31.
29. Seidman LJ, Valera EM, Makris N. Structural brain imaging of attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57(11): 1263–72.
30. Firth J, Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Schuch F, Lagopoulos J, Rosenbaum S, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise on hippocampal volume in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroimage 2018; 166: 230-8.
31. Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, et al. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011; 108(7): 3017–22.
32. Biedermann SV, Fuss J, Steinle J, Auer MK, Dormann C, Falfan-Melgoza C, et al. The hippocampus and exercise: histological correlates of MR-detected volume changes. Brain Struct Funct 2016; 221(3): 1353-63.
33. Voss MW, Vivar C, Kramer AF, van Praag H. Bridging animal and human models of exercise-induced brain plasticity. Trends Cogn Sci 2013; 17(10): 525-44.
34. Maass A, Duzel S, Brigadski T, Goerke M, Becke A, Sobieray U, et al. Relationships of peripheral IGF-1, VEGF and BDNF levels to exercise-related changes in memory, hippocampal perfusion and volumes in older adults. Neuroimage 2016; 131: 142-54
35. Swain RA, Harris AB, Wiener EC, Dutka MV, Morris HD, Theien BE, et al. Prolonged exercise induces angiogenesis and increases cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat. Neurosci 2003; 117(4): 1037–46.
36. Kimhy D, Vakhrusheva J, Bartels MN, Armstrong HF, Ballon JS, Khan S, et al. The impact of aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurocognition in individuals with schizophrenia: a single-blind, randomized clinical trial. Schizophr Bull 2015; 41(4): 859–68.
37. Titterness AK, Wiebe E, Kwasnica A, Keyes G, Christie BR. Voluntary exercise does not enhance long-term potentiation in the adolescent female dentate gyrus. Neuroscience 2011; 183: 25–31.
38. Liu G, Keeler BE, Zhukareva V and Houle JD. Cycling exercise affects the expression of apoptosisassociated microRNAs after spinal cord injury in rats. Experimental Neurol 2010; 226(1): 200-6.
39. Gonçalves J, Baptista S, Martins T, Milhazes N, Borges F, Ribeiro CF, et al. Methamphetaminec¸ induced neuroinflammation andneuronal dysfunction in the mice hippocampus: preventive effect of indomethacin. Eur J Neurosci 2010; 31(2): 315-26.
40. Louei Monfared A. Effects of Ritalin administration on the brain´s histological alterations in the mouse model. Exp Animal Biol 2017; 35-43.
41. Findling RL, Short EJ, Manos MJ. Short term cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate and adderall. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 40(5): 525-9.
42. Findling RL, Short EJ, Manos MJ. Short term cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate and adderall. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 40(5): 525-9.
43. Den Heijer AE, Groen Y, Tucha L, Fuermaier AB, Koerts J, Lange KW, et al. Sweat it out? The effects of physical exercise on cognition and behavior in children and adults with ADHD: a systematic literature review. J Neural Transm 2017; 124(1): 3-26.
44. Piepmeiera AT, HaoShih C, Whedon M, Williams LM, Davis ME, Henning DA, et al. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD. J Sport Health Sci 2015; 4(1): 97-104.
45. Suarez-Manzano S, Ruiz-Ariza A, De La Torre-Cruz M, Martínez-López EJ. Acute and chronic effect of physical activity on cognition and behaviour in young people with ADHD: A systematic review of intervention studies. Res Dev Disabil 2018; 77: 12-23.
46. Petrofsky JS, Cuneo M, Dial R, Pawley AK, Hill J. Core Strengthening and Balance in the Geriatric Population. J Appl Res 2005; 5(3): 423-33.
47. Marshall PW, Murphy BA. Core stability exercises on and off a Swiss ball. Arch Physical Med Rehabil 2005; 86(2): 242-9.
48. Kousha M, Norasteh A, Khalili S. The Effect of Core Stabilization Training on Balance in Children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorders(ADHD). J Guilan Uni Med Sci 2016; 25 (99): 82-92.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shadmehri S, Ahmadi M, Abbassi-Daloii A, Ziaolhagh S J, Yahyaei B. Motor coordination and structural changes of hippocampus tissue in response to eight weeks of aerobic training and Ritalin consumption in hyperactive rats. Feyz 2018; 22 (5) :458-468
URL: http://feyz.kaums.ac.ir/article-1-3565-en.html

Creative Commons License
This open access journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial ۴.۰ International License. CC BY-NC ۴. Design and publishing by Kashan University of Medical Sciences.
Copyright ۲۰۲۳© Feyz Medical Sciences Journal. All rights reserved.
Volume 22, Issue 5 (Bimonthly 2018) Back to browse issues page
مجله علوم پزشکی فیض Feyz Medical Sciences Journal
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 46 queries by YEKTAWEB 4645