[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 25, Issue 1 (Bimonthly 2021) ::
Feyz 2021, 25(1): 767-776 Back to browse issues page
The moderating role of religious well-being and self-differentiation in the relationship between boredom and addiction tendency among male high school students of Nourabad
Salman Zarei * , Ahmad Kazemipour
Department of Psychology, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, I.R. Iran. , salman_zarei@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (415 Views)
Background: Due to the increasing rate of addiction and its destructive consequences, recognizing the factors that contribute to addiction tendency among adolescents can be a useful step toward prevention of addiction. Therefore, this present study aimed to investigate the moderating role of religious well-being and self-differentiation in the relationship between boredom and addiction tendency.
Materials and Methods: The research design was correlational. The statistical population was high school male students in Nourabad at the academic year 1397-1398 that a total of 360 students were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using multi-dimensional religious well-being inventory, multidimensional scale of boredom, differentiation of self-inventory-revised, and addiction proneness scale. Then, collected data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and hierarchical linear regression.
Results: The results showed a positive and significant relationship between boredom and addiction tendency (r=0.44, P<0.01), a negative and significant relationship between religious well-being and addiction tendency (r=-0.29, P<0.01) and between self-differentiation and addiction tendency (r=-0.38, P<0.01). Also, based on hierarchical regression’ results the moderating role of religious well-being (β=0.16, P<0.01) and self-differentiation (β=0.25, P<0.01) in the relationship between boredom and addiction tendency was confirmed.
Conclusion: The present provided evidence for the moderating role of religious well-being and self-differentiation in the relationship between boredom and addiction proneness. Therefore, developing religious well-being and training self-differentiation among adolescents could be a good way to protect them in the face of boredom and addiction tendency.
Keywords: Adolescent, Addiction, Boredom, Differentiation, Religion, Well-being
Full-Text [PDF 1383 kb]   (106 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2020/07/11 | Accepted: 2021/02/27 | Published: 2021/04/6
1. Tsirigotis, K. Gender Differentiation of Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Drug Addicted Individuals (Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Addicted Women and Men). Psychiatr Q 2019; 90: 371–83.
2. Tripp MK. Tanning addiction in adolescents: directions for measurement and intervention development. J Invest Dermatol 2018; 138(7): 1463-7.
3. Cheung Y, Cheung NT. Adolescents drug abuse in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Psychological correlates, and prevention. J Adoles Health 2019; 64(6): 28-33.
4. Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Flint KH, Hawkins J. Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2018. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019; 61(4): 1-162.
5. Saberi Z, Farrokhi N, Namvar H. Causal Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Addiction Potential with the Mediating Role of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs and Academic Hardiness. Res Addiction 2018; 12(48): 135-56. [in Persian]
6. Trifilieff P, Ducrocq F, Vander Velldt S, Martinea D. Blunted dopamine transmission in addiction: potential mechanisms and implications for behavior. Seminars in Nuclear Med 2017; 47(1): 64-74.
7. Samek DR, Rueter M, Keyes M, McGue M, Iacono WG. Parent involvement, sibling companionship, and adolescent substance use: A longitudinal, genetically informed design. J Fam Psychol 2015; 29(4): 614–23.
8. Mercer KB, Eastwood JD. Is boredom associated with problem gambling behavior? It depends on what you mean by ‘boredom. Int Gambl Stud 2010; 10: 91–104.
9. Westgate EC, Wilson TD. Boring thoughts and bored minds: The MAC model of boredom and cognitive engagement. Psychol Rev 2018; 125(5): 689–713.
10. Goldstein AL, Vilhena-Churchil N, Stewart SH, Hoaken PN, Flett GL. Mood, motives and money: an examination of factors that differentiate online and non-online young adult gamblers. J Behav Addict 2016; 5: 68-76.
11. Chen H. The relationship between alexithymia and emotional symptoms: Mediating effects of boredom proneness. Chin J Clin Psychol 2016; 24(4): 648–51.
12. Larimer M, Klimer J, Lee C. High school student drug prevention: A review of individual prevention strategies. J Drug Issues 2015; 35: 431-56.
13. Denson TF, Pedersen WC, Friese M, Hahm A, Roberts L. Understanding impulsive aggression: Angry rumination and reduced self-control capacity are mechanisms underlying the provocation-aggression relationship. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2011; 37: 850–62.
14. LePera N. Relationships between boredom proneness, mindfulness, anxiety, depression, and substance use. The New Sch Psychol Bull 2011; 8(2): 15–25.
15. Chou WJ, Chang YP, Yen CF. Boredom proneness and its correlation with internet addiction and internet activities in adolescents with attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2018; 34: 467-74.
16. Garcia SDO, Babarro JM, Romero, DLPT. Spirits contra Spiritum: Including Spirituality in addiction treatments for recovery, a systematic review. Uni J Psychol 2017; 5(2): 66–87.
17. Wallace J. The contributions of spirituality and religious practices to children's happiness. BC: University of British Columbia; 2010.
18. Amlakian P, Amiri M, Taheri E. The mediating role of psychological hardiness in the relationship between spiritual well-being and religious commitment with the vitality in people with substance abuse disorder. J Fundament Ment Health 2019; 22(1): 17-25. [in Persian]
19. Michaelson V, Brooks F, Jirásek L, Inchley J, Whitehead R, King N, et al Developmental patterns of adolescent spiritual health in six countries. SSM-Pop Health 2016; 2: 294–303.
20. Ojala M. Regulating worry, promoting hope: How do children, adolescents, and young adults cope with climate change? Int J Environ Sci Educ 2012; 7(4): 537–61.
21. Gomes FC, Andrade AG, Izbicki R, Almeida AM, Oliveira LG. Religion as a protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students: a national survey. Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria 2013; 35(1): 29-37.
22. Holder M, Coleman B, Wallace J. Spirituality, religiousness, and happiness in children aged 8–12 years. J Happ Stud 2018; 11(2): 131–50.
23. Smith L, Webber R, DeFrain J. Spiritual well-being and its relationship to resilience in young people. Sage Open 2013; 1–13.
24. Hill PC, Pargament KI Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: Implications for physical and mental health research. Am Psychol 2008; 58: 64-74.
25. Yong H, Hamann SL, Borland R, Fong GT, Omar M. Adult smokers perception of the role of religion and religious leader ship on smoking and association with quitting,A comparison between Thai Budd hits and Malaysian Muslims. Soc Sci Med 2009; 69: 1025-31.
26. Merrill RM, Folsom JA, Christopherson SS. The influence of family religiosity on adolescents substance use according to religious preference. J Soc Behav Pers 2005; 33(8): 821-36.
27. Ercengiz M, Yildiz B, Savci M, Mark D. Griffiths. Differentiation of self, emotion management skills, and nomophobia among smartphone users: The mediating and moderating roles of intolerance of uncertainty. Soc Sci J 2020; 57(1): 20-31.
28. MoghadamFar N, Zokaie Ashtiyani M. The comparison of self-differentiation, early maladaptive schema, and the perceived social support in the married women, and the separated spouses. Pathology, Counseling Family Enrichment 2017; 3 (1): 93-114. [in Persian]
29. Skowron EA, Schmitt TA. Assessing interpersonal fusion: reliability and validity of a new DSI fusion with others subscale. J Marital Fam Ther 2003; 29: 209–22.
30. Lu-Ying N. The mediating role of self- differentiation in the relationship between college students’ cell-phone dependence and family function. Advanc Soc Sci Educat Hum Res 2018; 281: 1-5.
31. Judith A, Cook SL, Stetina P, Hernandez C. Women in substance abuse recovery: measures of resilience and self-differentiation. West J Nurs Res 2009; 31(7): 905-22.
32. Church S, Bhatia U, Velleman R, Velleman G, Orford J, Rane A, et al. Coping strategies and support structures of addiction affected families: A qualitative study from Goa, India. Fam System Health 2018; 36(2): 216: 24.
33. Thorberg FA, Lyvers M. Attachment, fear of intimacy and differentiation of self among clients in substance disorder treatment facilities. Addict behav 2006; 31(4): 732-7.
34. Kamkar S, Farrokhi N, Salimi Bajestani H, Mardani Rad M. Developing and Testing of the Causal Model of Students' Addiction Potential based on Distress Tolerance and Differentiation with the Mediating Role of Alexithymia. Res Addict 2020; 15(55): 29-46. [in Persian]
35. Fahlman SA, Mercer-Lynn KB, Flora DB, Eastwood JD. Development and validation of the multidimensional state boredom scale. Assess J 2011; 20(1): 68-85
36. Mohseni-Ezhiyeh A, Ghamarani A. Psychometric Characteristics of the Persian Version of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale (MSBS-PV) in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. JRUMS 2017; 15(9): 821-34. [in Persian]
37. Weed N, Butcher NJ, Mckenna T, Ben-Porath Y. New measures for assessing alcohol and other drug problems with MMPI-2, APS & AAS. J Per Assess 1992; 58: 389-404.
38. Zargar Y, Najjarian B, and Naami AZ. Investigating the Relationship between Personality Traits, Religious Attitude, and Marital Satisfaction with Drug Addiction Readiness in Employees of an Industrial Company in Ahvaz. J Educ Sci Psychol 2008; 15(1): 99-120. [in Persian]
39. Unterrainer HF, Huber HP, Ladenhauf KH, Wallner SJ, Liebmann PM. MI-RSWB 48: The Development of a Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being. Diagnostica 2010; 49: 82–93.
40. Alilu M, Zarean M, Birami M, Hashemi T, Elhami AM, Ayatmehr F. Psychometric properties of Farsi version of Multi- dimensional Inventory for Religious-Spiritual Well-Being. Contemporary Psychol 2011; 6(1): 23-36. [in Persian]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Zarei S, Kazemipour A. The moderating role of religious well-being and self-differentiation in the relationship between boredom and addiction tendency among male high school students of Nourabad. Feyz. 2021; 25 (1) :767-776
URL: http://feyz.kaums.ac.ir/article-1-4183-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 25, Issue 1 (Bimonthly 2021) Back to browse issues page
مجله علمی پژوهشی فیض ::: دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان KAUMS Journal ( FEYZ )
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.03 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4331