[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 22, Issue 4 (Bimonthly 2018) ::
Feyz 2018, 22(4): 419-428 Back to browse issues page
The relationship of depression, distress tolerance and difficulty in emotional regulation with addiction to cell-phone use in students of Kashan University
Zahra Zanjani * , Masumeh Moghbeli Hanzaii Mis , Hamid Mohsenabadi
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I. R. Iran. , z_zanjani2005@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (183 Views)
Background: Cell phone plays an essential role in communications throughout the world. This question has been raised whether the over use of the cell-phone could lead to addiction. Addiction to cell phone use is characterized by the overuse and preoccupation with the mobile phone. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of depression, distress tolerance and difficulty in emotional regulation with addiction to cell-phone use in students of Kashan University.
Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 200 students of Kashan University in the academic year 2016-2017 were selected by the cluster sampling method. The research tools included the cell-phone over-use scale (COS, 2007(, Beck depression inventory (BDI), difficulty in emotion regulation scale (DERS), and distress tolerance scale (DTS).
Results: The results of the regression analysis showed that depression, distress tolerance and difficulty in emotional regulation explained more than 33% of the changes in addiction to cell-phone use. Also, there was a significant correlation between depression and addiction to cell-phone use (r=0.22, P<0.05). In addition, there was a significant correlation between distress tolerance (r=-0.47, P<0.05) and difficulty in emotion regulation (r=0.50, P<0.05) with cell-phone addiction in Kashan University students.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, addiction to cell-phone use can be predicted by three variables of depression, distress tolerance, and difficulty in emotion regulation. The difficulty in emotion regulation played a stronger role in this prediction.
Keywords: Addiction to cell phone use, Depression, Distress tolerance, Emotion regulation
Full-Text [PDF 277 kb]   (11 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2018/03/15 | Accepted: 2018/08/8 | Published: 2018/10/6
1. Esmaeilinasab M, Andamikhoshk A, Azarmi H, AmirSamarrokhi. The role of predictor of difficulty in emotion regulation and tolerance in students' addiction. J Res Addic 2014; 8(29): 50-63. [in Persian]
2. Ahmadi MH, Elahi T. Excitement and User Relationship of Mobile Phone Accessory in Students of Zanjan University Quarterly. J Info Commun Tech Edu Sci 2014; 4(3): 107-26. [in Persian]
3. Lopez-Fernandez O, Kuss DJ, Romo L, Morvan Y, Kern L, Graziani P, et al. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey. J Behav Addict 2017; 6(2): 168-77.
4. Yahyazadeh S, Fallahi-Khoshknab M, Rahgoi A, Norouzi K, Dalvandi A. The prevalence of smart phone addiction among students in medical sciences universities in Tehran 2016. Adv Nurs Midwifery 2017; 26(94): 1-10. [in Persian]
5. Khazaie T, Saadatjoo A, Dormohamadi S, Soleimani M, Toosinia M, Zadeh FMH, et al. Prevalence of mobile dependency and adolescence aggression. J Birjand Uni Med Sci 2013; 19(4): 430-8. [in Persian]
6. Poorakbaran E. Assessment of using of emerging communication tools (cell phone, internet and satellite) among young adults and its association with anxiety, depression and stress. J Fund Ment Health 2015; 17(5): 254-9. [in Persian]
7. Niazi M, Ghandi F, Samaninejad MJ. Specifying the Effective Factors in Addiction to the Cell Phone. QJFR 2012; 9(2): 181-211.
8. Morahan-Martin J, Schumacher P. Incidence and correlates of pathological Internet use among college students. Comp Hum Behav 2000; 16(1): 13-29.
9. Pedersen T. Heavy cell phone use linked to depression, sleep problems in young people. Psych Central 2018.
10. Lancee J, van den Bout J, Sorbi MJ, van Straten A. Motivational support provided via email improves the effectiveness of internet-delivered self-help treatment for insomnia: a randomized trial. Behav Res Ther 2013; 51(12): 797-805.
11. Sapacz M, Rockman G, Clark J. Are we addicted to our cell phones? Com Hum Behav 2016; 57: 153-9.
12. Nourian Aghdam J, Almardani Some’eh S, Kazemi R. Comparison of sleep disturbance, social isolation and emotion regulation in internet addiction disorder and normal students in Ardabil City, in 2014. Pajouh Sci J 2016; 14(4): 8-17. [in Persian]
13. Liu QQ, Zhou ZK, Yang XJ, Kong FC, Niu G-F, Fan CY. Mobile phone addiction and sleep quality among Chinese adolescents: A moderated mediation model. Com Hum Behav 2017; 72: 108-14.
14. De-Sola Gutiérrez J, Rodríguez de Fonseca F, Rubio G. Cell-phone addiction: a review. Fronti Psychiat 2016; 7: 175.
15. Atadokht A, Hamidifar V, Mohammadi I. Over-use and type of mobile phone users in high school students and its relationship with academic performance and achievement motivation. J Sch Psychol 2014; 3(2): 122-36.
16. Goswami V, Singh DR. Impact of mobile phone addiction on adolescent’s life: a literature review. Int J Home Sci 2016; 3(2): 69-74.
17. Salehi A, Bagban I, Bahrami F, Ahmadi S. The Relationship between Cognitive Strategies for Emotion Regulation and Emotional Problems with regard to Individual and Family Factors. J Family Coun Psycho 2011; 1(1): 1-18. [in Persian]
18. Soltani M, Fooladvand Kh, Fathi-Ashtiani A. Relationship between identity and sensation-seeking with internet addiction. Int J Behav Sci 2010; 4(3): 191-7.
19. Amiri S, Naseri Tamrin K. The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, impulsivity and extraversion in the tendency of the internet addiction in the students of Urmia university, in 2014. Pajouh Sci J 2015; 14(1): 1-11. [in Persian]
20. Leung L. Linking psychological attributes to addiction and improper use of the mobile phone among adolescents in Hong Kong. J Child Medi 2008; 2(2): 93-113.
21. Leung L. Leisure boredom, sensation seeking, self-esteem, and addiction. Medi Interper Commun 2008; 1: 359-81.
22. Kamibeppu K, Sugiura H. Impact of the mobile phone on junior high-school students' friendships in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Cyberpsychol Behav 2005; 8(2): 121-30.
23. Gross JJ. Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysi 2002; 39(3): 281-91.
24. Mayer JD, Salovey P. Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings. Appl Prev Psychol 1995; 4(3): 197-208.
25. Isen AM, Rosenzweig AS, Young MJ. The influence of positive affect on clinical problem solving. Med Deci Making 1991; 11(3): 221-7.
26. Eisenberg N. Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annu Rev Psychol 2000; 51(1): 665-97.
27. Sullivan MJ, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess 1995; 7(4): 524.
28. Simons JS, Gaher RM. The Distress Tolerance Scale: Development and validation of a self-report measure. Motiv Emot 2005; 29(2): 83-102.
29. Jenaro C, Flores N, Gómez-Vela M, González-Gil F, Caballo C. Problematic internet and cell-phone use: Psychological, behavioral, and health correlates. Addict Res Theory 2007; 15(3): 309-20.
30. Golmohammadian M, Yaseminejad P. Normalization, validity and reliability of cell-phone over-use scale (SOC) amonge University students. J Soch Psych (New Find Psych) 2011; 6(19): 37-52. [in Persian]
31. Beck KH, Ali B, Daughters SB. Distress tolerance as a predictor of risky and aggressive driving. Traffic Inj Prev 2014; 15(4): 349-54.
32. Taheri Tanjani P, Gh G, Azadbakht M, Fekrizadeh Z, Hamidi R, Sh F. Validity and reliability Beck Depression Inventory-II among the Iranian elderly population. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 2015; 22(1): 189-98. [in Persian]
33. Gratz KL, Gunderson JG. Preliminary data on an acceptance-based emotion regulation group intervention for deliberate self-harm among women with borderline personality disorder. Behav Ther 2006; 37(1): 25-35.
34. Asgari P, Pasha G, Maryam A. Relationship between emotional regulation, psychological stresses of life and body image with eating disorders in women. J Thought Pract (Appli Psych) 2009; 4(13): 65-78. [in Persian]
35. Shams J, Azizi A, Mirzaei A. Correlation between distress tolerance and emotional regulation with students smoking dependence. Hakim Res J 2010; 13(1): 11-8. [in Persian]
36. Divband F. The relationship between excitement, leisurely leisure, and self-esteem, with mobile addiction. J Psych Res 2013; 15(30): 30-47.
37. Boumosleh JM, Jaalouk D. Depression, anxiety, and smartphone addiction in university students-A cross sectional study. PLoS One 2017; 12(8): e0182239.
38. Chen L, Yan Z, Tang W, Yang F, Xie X, He J. Mobile phone addiction levels and negative emotions among Chinese young adults: the mediating role of interpersonal problems. Comput Human Behav 2016; 55: 856-66.
39. Cooper ML, Frone MR, Russell M, Mudar P. Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use. J Pers Soc Psychol 1995; 69(5): 990-1005.
40. McCuller WJ, Sussman S, Dent CW, Teran L. Concurrent prediction of drug use among high-risk youth. Addict Behav 2001; 26(1): 137-42.
41. Prusakowski MK, Shofer FS, Rhodes KV, Mills AM. Effect of depression and psychosocial stressors on cessation self-efficacy in mothers who smoke. Matern Child Health J 2011; 15(5): 620-6.
42. Morgan C, Cotten SR. The relationship between Internet activities and depressive symptoms in a sample of college freshmen. Cyber Psych Behav 2003; 6(2): 133-42.
43. Jun S. The reciprocal longitudinal relationships between mobile phone addiction and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents. Comput Human Behav 2016; 58: 179-86.
44. Hamblin DL, Wood AW. Effects of mobile phone emissions on human brain activity and sleep variables. Int J Radiat Biol 2002; 78(8): 659-69.
45. Ezoe S, Toda M, Yoshimura K, Naritomi A, Den R, Morimoto K. Relationships of personality and lifestyle with mobile phone dependence among female nursing students. Soc Behav Personality: Int J 2009; 37(2): 231-8.
46. McIntyre AW. The role of distress tolerance in aggressive behavior. Dissertations 2013; 192.
47. Williams AD, Thompson J, Andrews G. The impact of psychological distress tolerance in the treatment of depression. Behav Res Ther 2013; 51(8): 469-75.
48. Ali B, Hamilton KR, Bounoua N, Lejuez C. Distress tolerance moderates the relationship between social rejection and major depressive disorder in inner-city substance users. Drug Alco Depen 2015; 146: e206.
49. Hahn C, Kim DJ. Is there a shared neurobiology between aggression and Internet addiction disorder? J Behav Addict 2014; 3(1): 12-20.
50. Ayadi N, Abbasi M, Pirani Z, Pirani A. The relationship between emotion`s control, distress tolerance and harmful use of cell phones among students. J Info Commun Tech Edu Sci 2016; 7(1): 145-62. [in Persian]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Zanjani Z, Moghbeli Hanzaii M, mohsenabadi H. The relationship of depression, distress tolerance and difficulty in emotional regulation with addiction to cell-phone use in students of Kashan University. Feyz. 2018; 22 (4) :419-428
URL: http://feyz.kaums.ac.ir/article-1-3563-en.html

Volume 22, Issue 4 (Bimonthly 2018) Back to browse issues page
مجله علمی پژوهشی فیض ::: دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان KAUMS Journal ( FEYZ )
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3764