:: Volume 21, Issue 1 (Bimonthly 2017) ::
Feyz 2017, 21(1): 94-101 Back to browse issues page
The effect of a 12 week plyometric and soccer training on the cardiac structure and function among the 13-15 years old boys
Bakhtiar Tartibian, Bahman Ebrahimi-Torkamani *
Department of Physical Education , Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, I. R. Iran. , Ebrahimi.ba96@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (2534 Views)

Background: Exercise plays an important role in improving cardiovascular function. Due to the increasing tendency of children to the soccer the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a 12 week plyometric and soccer training on the cardiac structure and function of healthy 13-15 years old boys.  

Materials and Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted with a pre-test and post-test design. The participants (n=20) were selected among the non-athletic healthy boys (13-15 years) from Miyaneh (East Azerbaijan, Iran). After taking informed consent the participants were voluntarily participated in two equal Training and Control groups. The participants in the Exercise group performed a 12 week plyometric and soccer training. Under basic conditions and after a 12 week follow-up using the echocardiography both groups were examined for left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD), left ventricular end diastolic posterior wall dimension­ (LVPWd), inter-ventricular septal end diastolic dimension (IVSd), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and cardiac output (CO).

Results: After a 12 week training program the LVEDD, LVPWd and SV were significantly increased (P<0.05).  The EF in the Exercise group had no increase. Moreover, LVESD and IVSd were similar in both groups. 

Conclusion: A twelve week plyometric and soccer training in 13-15 years old boys result in significant changes in some cardiac structural and functional indexes.

Keywords: Cardiac structure, Cardiac function, Plyometric training, Football, Boys
Full-Text [PDF 288 kb]   (2625 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/03/1 | Accepted: 2017/03/1 | Published: 2017/03/1
1. Thompson PD, Franklin BA, Balady GJ, Blair SN, Corrado D, Mark Estes NA, et al. Exercise and acute cardiovascular events. Circulation 2007; 115(17): 2358-68.
2. Dixon JB. The effect of obesity on health outcomes: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010; 316(2): 104-8.
3. Nadeau KJ, Maahs DM, Daniels SR, Eckel RH. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: Links and prevention strategies. Nat Rev Cardiol 2011; 8(9): 513-25.
4. Mosey T. High intensity interval training in youth soccer players testing results practically. J Australian Strength Conditioning 2009; 17(4): 49-51.
5. Buchan DS, Ollis S, Young JD, Thomas NE, Cooper SM, Tong TK, et al. The effects of time and intensity of exercise on novel and established markers of CVD in adolescent youth. Am J Hum Biol 2011; 23(4): 517–26.
6. Bendiksen M, Williams C, Hornstrup T, Clausen H, Kloppenborg J, Shumikhinm D, et al. Heart rate response and fitness effects of various types of physical education for 8- to 9-year-old schoolchildren. Eur J Sport Sci 2014; 14(8): 861-9.
7. Meylan C, Malatesta D. Effects of in-season plyometric training within soccer practice on explosive actions of young players. J Strength Cond Res 2009; 23(9): 2605-13.
8. Cormie P, Mcguigan MR, Newton RU. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production. Sports Med 2011; 41(1): 17-38.
9. Perseghin G, Cobelli F, Esposito A, Lattuada G, Terruzzi I, La Torre A, et al. Effect of the sporting discipline on the right and left ventricular morphology and function of elite male track runners: a magnetic resonance imaging and phosphorus 31 spectroscopy study. Am Heart J 2007; 154(5): 937-42.
10. Basavarajaiah S, Boraita A, Whyte G, Wilson M, Carby L, Shah A, et al. Ethnic differences in left ventricular remodeling in highly trained athletes relevance to differentiating physiologic left ventricular hypertrophy from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51(23): 2256-62.
11. Pela G, Bruschi G, Montagna L, Manara M, Manca C. Left and right ventricular adaptation assessed by Doppler tissue echocardiography in athletes. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004; 17(3): 205-11.
12. Henriksen E, Sundstedt M, Hedberg P. Left ventricular end-diastolic geometrical adjustments during exercise in endurance athletes. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2008; 28(2): 76-80.
13. Baggish AL, Wang F, Weiner RB, Elinoff JM, Tournoux F, Boland A, et al. Training-specific changes in cardiac structure and function: a prospective and longitudinal assessment of competitive athletes. J Appl Physiol 2008; 104(4): 1121-8.
14. Hansen PR, Andersen LJ, Rebelo AN, Brito J, Hornstrup T, Schmidt JF, et al. Cardiovascular effects of 3 months of football training in overweight children examined by comprehensive echocardiography: a pilot study. J Sports Sci 2013; 31(13): 1432-40.
15. Faude O, Kerper O, Multhaupt M, Winther C, Beziel K, Junge A, et al. Football to tackle overweight in children. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2010; 20 Suppl 1: 103-10.
16. Jian Rong SHI. Cardiac structure and function in young athletes [Thesis]. Victoria, Recreation and Performance. University of Technology. 2002.
17. Obert P, Stecken F, Courteix D, Lecoq A, Guenon P. Effect of Long-Term Intensive Endurance Training on Left Ventricular Structure and Diastolic Function in Prepubertal Children. Int J Sports Med 1998; 19(2): 149-54.
18. Adams TD, Yanowitz FG, Fisher AG, Ridges JD, Lovell K, Pryor TA. Noninvasive evaluation of exercise training in college-age men. Circulation 1981; 64(5): 958-65.
19. Vinet A, Mandigout S, Nottin S, Nguyen L, Lecoq AM, Courteix D, et al. Influence of Body Composition, Hemoglobin Concentration, and Cardiac Size and Function of Gender Differences in Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Prepubertal Children. Chest 2003; 124(4): 1494-9.
20. Williams CA, Armstrong N, Powell J. Aerobic responses of prepubertal boys to two modes of training. Br J Sports Med 2000; 34(5): 168-73.
21. Peter Rh, Lars Ja, Antonio Nr, Joao B, Therese H, Jakob F, et al. Cardiovascular effects of 3 months of football training in overweight children examined by comprehensive echocardiography: a pilot study. J Sports Sci 2013; 31(13): 1432-40.
22. Markovic G, Jukic I, Milanovic D, Metikos D. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. J Strength Conditioning Res 2007; 21(2): 543–9.
23. Obert P, nottin S, baquet G, thevenet D, berthoin S. Two months of endurance training does not alter diastolic function evaluated by TDI in 9–11-year-old boys and girls. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43(2): 132-5.
24. Nottin S, Vinet A, Stecken F, Guyen D, Ounissi F, Lecoq A, et al. Central and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations to exercise in endurance-trained children. Acta Physiol Scand 2002; 175(2): 85-92.
25. Krustrup P, Hansen PR, Nielsen CM, Larsen MN, Randers MB, Manniche V, et al. Structural and functional cardiac adaptations to a 10-week school-based football intervention for 9–10-year-old children. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2014; 24 Suppl 1: 4-9.
26. Wisløff U, Støylen A, Loennechen JP, Bruvold M, Rognmo Ø, Haram PM, et al. Superior cardiovascular effect of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in heart failure patients: A randomized study. Circulation 2007; 115(24): 3086-94.
27. Tummavuori M, Long-term effects of physical training on cardiac function and structure in adolescent cross-contry skiers a 6.5 years longitudinal echocardiographic study [Thesis]. academic dissertation, University of jyväskylä 2004.
28. Rowland TW, Roti MW. Cardiac responses to progressive upright exercise in adult male cyclists. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2004; 44(2): 178-85.
29. Rowland T, Potts J, Potts T, Sandor G, Goff D, Ferrone L. Cardiac responses to progressive exercise in normal children: a synthesis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(2): 253-9.
30. Hansen PR, Andersen LJ, Rebelo AN, Brito J, Hornstrup T, Schmidt JF, et al. Cardiovascular effects of 3 months of football training in overweight children examined by comprehensive echocardiography: a pilot study. J Sports Sci 2013; 31(13): 1432-40.
31. Mahamad purdehyari, Ebrahimi A, Compare the structure and function of the heart with non-athlete students footballer Mashhad University of Medical Sciences [degree of Master]. Mashhad. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 2013. [in Persian]
32. Babette M, Aeilko H, Arnoudn D, Wall E. The athlete’s heart a meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation 2000; 2(101): 336.
33. Maron BJ, Pelliccia A. The heart of trained athletes: cardiac remodeling and the risks of sports, including sudden death. Circulation 2006; 114(15): 1633-44.
34. Osborn R, Taylor W, Oken K, Luzano M, Heckman M, Fletcher G. Echocardiographic characterisation of left ventricular geometry of professional male tennis players. Br J Sports Med 2007; 41(11): 789-92.
35. Schannwell CM, Schneppenheima M, Plehna G, Marxa R, Strauera BE. Left ventricular diastolic function in physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy. Am J Hypertens 2002; 15(6): 513-7.

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Volume 21, Issue 1 (Bimonthly 2017) Back to browse issues page