[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 21, Issue 6 (Bimonthly 2017) ::
Feyz 2017, 21(6): 534-542 Back to browse issues page
Structural changes of cardiac tissue in response to boldenone supplementation with or without alcoholic extract of jujuba fruit during resistance training in male Wistar rats
Mozhgan Ahmadi * , Asieh Abbassi-Daloii , Seyed Javad Ziaolhagh , Behrooz Yahyaei
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, I. R. Iran. , mahmadi1376@gmail.com
Abstract:   (915 Views)
Background: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids has been linked to a variety of different cardiovascular side effects. The use of medicinal herbs has been shown to reduce disease and cardiovascular disorders. This study aimed at examining the structural changes of the cardiac tissue in response to boldenone supplementation along with the alcoholic extract of jujuba during resistance training in male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 male Wistar rats aged 8-12 weeks (weight 202±9.34 g) were randomly divided into five groups: control, boldenone, extract of iujuba+boldenone, boldenone+resistance training and boldenone+resistance training+extract of jujuba. The resistance training program included climbing the ladder for 8 weeks, 3 days a week, 1 session training in a day and each session consisted of the 3 sets and 5 repetitions. Injection was conducted in depth in the hamstring once a week, on an appointed day. After anesthesia, autopsy was performed and the cardiac tissue was isolated.
Results: The results showed that boldenone caused tissue damage, hyperemia, abnormal cytoplasm and unclear and dispersed nuclei. In the boldenone+resistance training group, the heart tissue had high levels of hyperemia and the muscle cells were a little abnormal. In the boldenone+jujube group, appearance of the tissue was normal and a restorative effect was evident in the tissue.
Conclusion: It seems that boldenone can cause structural damage to the heart tissue and the resistance training along with the jujube extract can reduce some of the cardiovascular disorders (necrosis and inflammation) caused by the use of anabolic steroids.
Keywords: Boldenone, Cardiac tissue, jujuba, Resistance training, Rats
Full-Text [PDF 381 kb]   (317 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: General
Received: 2017/05/26 | Accepted: 2017/11/4 | Published: 2018/01/7
References
1. Martinez-Quintana E, Saiz-Udaeta B, Marrero-Negrin N, Lopez-M_erida X, Rodriguez-Gonzalez F, Nieto-Lago V. Androgenic anabolic steroid, cocaine and amphetamine abuse and adverse cardiovascular effects. Int J Endocrinol endocrinol Metab 2013; 11(4).
2. Cannizzo FT, Zancanaro G, Spada F, Mulasso C, Biolatti B. Pathology of the testicle and sex accessory glands following the administration of boldenone and boldione as growth promoters in veal calves. J Vet Med Sci 2007; 69(11): 1109-16.
3. Van Amsterdam J, Opperhuizen A, Hartgens F. Adverse health effects of anabolic–androgenic steroids. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2010; 57(1): 117-23.
4. Battista V, Combs J, Warne WJ. Asynchronous bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures and rostenedioluse. Am J Sports Med 2003; 31(6): 1007–9.
5. Hartgens F, Kuipers H. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med 2004; 34(8): 513-54
6. Akçakoyun M, Alizade E, Gundogdu R, Bulut M, Tabakcı MM, Açar G, et al. Long-term anabolic androgenic steroid use is associated with increased atrial electromechanical delay in male bodybuilders. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 4515-20.
7. De Piccoli B, Giada F, Benettin A, Sartori F, Piccolo E. Anabolic steroid use in body builders: an echocardiographic study of left ventricle morphology and function. Int J Sports Med 1991; 12(4): 408–12.
8. Payne JR, Kotwinski PJ, Montgomery HE. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroid. Heart 2004; 90 (5): 473-5.
9. Hassan AF, Kamal MM. Effect of exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroids on hemodynamics, glycogen content, angiogenesis and apoptosis of cardiac muscle in adult male rats. Int J Health Sci 2013; 7(1): 47-60.
10. Fineschi V, Riezzo I, Centini F, Silingardi E, Licata M, Karch SB. Sudden cardiac death during anabolic steroid abuse: morphologic and toxicologic finding in two fatal cases of bodybuilders. Int J Legal Med 2007; 121(1): 48-53 .
11. Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, van der Laarse A, van der Wall EE. The athlete’s heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation 2000; 25; 101(3): 336-44.
12. Ellison GM, Waring CD, Vicinanza C, Torella D. Physiological cardiac remodeling in response to endurance exercise training: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Heart 2012; 98(1):5-10.
13. Ebrahimi S, Sadeghi H, Pourmahmoudi A, Askariyan SH, Askari S. Protective Effect of Ziziphus Jujuba Mill, on Liver Toxicity in Laboratory Rats. Armaghane Danesh 2011; 16(2): 172-80.
14. Pawlowska AM, Camangi F, Bader A, Braca A. Flavonoids of Ziziphus Jujuba L. and Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd (Rhamnaceae) fruits.. Food Chem 2009; 112(4): 858-62.
15. Al- Reza SM, Bajpai VK, Kang SC. Antioxidant and antilisterial effect of seed essential oil and organic extracts from Ziziphus Jujuba. Food Chem Toxicol 2009; 47(9): 2374-80.
16. Li JW, Fan LP, Ding SD, Ding XL, Nturitional composition of five cultivars of Chinese jujuba. Food Chem 2007; 103(2): 454-60.
17. Afzalpour ME, Abtahi Eivari H, Rezazadeh A, Solouki A. Effect of Ziziphus jujuba supplementation before One Session of Acute Resistance Exercise on the Serum Glutathione Peroxidase and Superoxide Dismutase Activity. J Quarterly of the Horizon of Medical Sciences 2015; 21(2):97-104
18. Farnsworth NR, Soejarto DD. Global importance of medicinal plants. conservation of biodiversity with reference to indigenous herbal therapeutic agents. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 1991; P. 25–51.
19. Heidari M, Norooz Zadeh R, Abbasi M. The use of herbal drugs in cardiovascular diseases: A review article. Iran J Cardiovascular Nursing 2013; 2(2): 70-7.
20. Mohanty IR, Gupta SK, Mohanty N, Joseph D, Deshmukh Y. The Beneficial Effects of Herbs in Cardiovascular Diseases. Global J Med Res 2012; 12 (4): 39-58.
21. Mota AH. A Review of Medicinal Plants Used in Therapy of Cardiovascular Diseases. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2016; 8; 572-591
22. Baharvand-Ahmadi B, Bahmani M, Eftekhari Z, Jelodari M, Mirhoseini M. Overview of medicinal plants used for cardiovascular system disorders and diseases in ethnobotany of different areas in Iran. J HerbMed Pharmacol 2016; 5(1)
23. Taati M, Alirezaei M, Moshkatalsadat M H, Rasoulian B, Moghadasi M, Sheikhzadeh F, et al. Protective effects of Ziziphus Jujuba Mill fruit extract against ethanol-induced hippocampal oxidative stress and spatial memory impairment in rats. J Med Plant Res 2011; 5(6): 915-21.
24. Niaki AG, Hosseini F, Rooadbari F, Ahmadabad SR, Rooadbari M. Effects of aerobic training, with or without Ziziphus Jujuba Mill extraction, on fundus nesfatin-1, ATP, HDL-C, and LDLconcentrations in female rats. J Phys Activ Health 2013; 4(1): 9-16.
25. Abbassi Daloii A, Ziaolhagh S J, Ziaolhagh S J, Fazelniya M. The Effects of 6 Weeks of Endurance Training and Consumption of Different Doses of Boldenone on Hematological Factors and Spleen Structure Changes in Male Wistar Rats. Qom Univ Med Sci J 2017; 11(4): 20-31
26. Sukho L, Rogers OF. Resistance Training, Muscle Mass and Function in the Rat. An Int Electronic J 2003; 1097-9751.
27. Frankenfeld SP, de Oliveira LP, Ignacio DL, Coelho RG, Mattos MN, Ferreira AC, et al. Nandrolone decanoate inhibits gluconeogenesis and decreases fasting glucose in Wistar male rats. J Endocrinol 2014; 220(2):143-53.
28. Tylicki A, Kawalko A, Sokolska J, Strumilo S. Effect of anabolic steroid nandrolone deaconate on enzymesin the heart, liver and muscle of rats and rat’s electrophysiology. Horm Metab Res 2007; 39(4): 268-72.
29. Takahashi M, Tatsugi Y, Kohno T. Endocrinological and pathological effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid in male rat. Endocr J 2004; 51(4): 425-34
30. Frati P, Busardo FP, Cipolloni L, Dominicis ED, Fineschi V. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) related deaths: autoptic, histopathologycal and toxicological findings. Curr Neuropharmacol 2015; 13(1): 146-59.
31. Tanno AP, das Neves VJ, Rosa KT, Cunha TS, Giordano FC, Calil CM, et al. Nandrolone and resistance training induce heart remodeling: role of fetal genes and implications for cardiac pathophysiology. Life Sci 2011; 89(17-18): 631-7.
32. Montisci M, El Mazloum R, Cecchetto G, Terranova C, Ferrara SD, Thiene G, et al. Anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and cardiac death in athletes: morphological and toxicological findings in four fatal cases. Forensic Sci Int 2012; 217(1-3): 13-8.
33. Rosano GM, Cornoldi A, Fini M. Effects of androgens on the cardiovascular system. J Endocrinol Invest 2005; 28 (3 Suppl): 32–8.
34. Zaugg M, Jamali NZ, Lucchinetti E, Xu W, Alam M, Shafiq SA, Siddiqui MA. Anabolic androgenic steroids induce apoptotic cell death in adult rat ventricular myocytes. J Cell Physiol 2001; 187(1): 90–95.
35. Lieberherr M, Grosse B. Androgens increase intracellular calcium concentration and inositol 1, 4, 5- triphosphate and diacylglycerol formation via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. J Biol Chem 1994; 269(10): 7217–23.
36. Kroemer G, Dallaporta B, Resche-Rigon M. The mitochondrial death/ life regulator in apoptosis and necrosis. Annu Rev Physiol 1998; 60: 619–42.
37. Rocha FL, Carmo EC, Roque FR, Hashimoto NY, Rossoni LV, Frimm C, et al. Anabolic steroids induce cardiac renin-angiotensin system and impair the beneficial effects of aerobic training in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007; 293(6): 3575-83
38. Ren R, Oakley RH, Cruz-Topete D, Cidlowski JA. Dual role for glucocorticoids in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. Endocrinology 2012; 153(11): 5346-60.
39. Sretenović J, Zivkovic V, Srejovic I, Milosavljevic Z. The Effects of High Doses of Nandrolone Decanoate on Cardiac Muscle Tissue. Ser J Exp Clin Res 2016; 17(4): 303-8.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA code


XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ahmadi M, Abbassi-Daloii A, Ziaolhagh S J, Yahyaei B. Structural changes of cardiac tissue in response to boldenone supplementation with or without alcoholic extract of jujuba fruit during resistance training in male Wistar rats. Feyz. 2017; 21 (6) :534-542
URL: http://feyz.kaums.ac.ir/article-1-3350-en.html


Volume 21, Issue 6 (Bimonthly 2017) Back to browse issues page
مجله علمی پژوهشی فیض ::: دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کاشان KAUMS Journal ( FEYZ )
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 3752